Toddy is an alcoholic beverage made in southern states like Karnataka, Telangana, Kerala, Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh. It is white and sweet with 4%-6% abv.

Palm wine, known by several local names, is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms. It is known by various names in different regions and is common in various parts of Africa, the Caribbean, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Micronesia.

Palm wine production by smallholders and individual farmers may promote conservation as palm trees become a source of regular household income that may economically be worth more than the value of timber sold.

The sap is extracted and collected by a tapper. Typically the sap is collected from the cut flower of the palm tree. A container is fastened to the flower stump to collect the sap. The white liquid that initially collects tends to be very sweet and non-alcoholic before it is fermented. An alternative method is the felling of the entire tree. Where this is practised, a fire is sometimes lit at the cut end to facilitate the collection of sap.

Palm sap begins fermenting immediately after collection, due to natural yeasts in the air (often spurred by residual yeast left in the collecting container). Within two hours, fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some people prefer. Longer fermentation produces vinegar instead of stronger wine.

Palm wine may be distilled to create a stronger drink, which goes by different names depending on the region (e.g., arrack, village gin, charayam, and country whiskey).

Throughout Nigeria, this is commonly called ogogoro. In some parts of Cameroon, it is known as Afofo. In parts of southern Ghana, distilled palm wine is called akpeteshi or burukutu. In Togo and Benin, it is called sodabe, while in Tunisia it is called lagmi. In coastal parts of Kenya, it is known as “chang’aa”. Chang’aa can be applied to wounds to stop heavy bleeding (mechanism of action not known). In Ivory Coast, it is called “koutoukou”.

In the Philippines, the most common distilled palm liquor is lambanog which is made from aged tubâ. It has very high alcohol by volume, at 40 to 45% abv (80 to 90 proof).